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A brief introduction of CNC machine tools

Numerical control (English name: Numerical Control referred to as: NC) technology refers to the digital instructions composed of numbers, words and symbols to achieve one or more mechanical equipment motion control technology. Numerical control generally uses general-purpose or special-purpose computers to implement digital program control. Therefore, numerical control is also called computerized numerical control (CNC), which is abbreviated as CNC. Foreign countries generally call it CNC, and rarely use the concept of NC. What it controls is usually the mechanical quantity such as position, angle, speed, etc., and the switching quantity related to the flow of mechanical energy. The generation of numerical control relies on the appearance of numerically-controlled machine tools (2 sheets) of data carriers and binary data operations. In 1908, a perforated metal foil interchangeable data carrier was introduced; at the end of the 19th century, a control system using paper as a data carrier and supporting functions was invented; in 1938, Shannon conducted rapid data calculation and transmission at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Laid the foundation of modern computers, including computer digital control systems. CNC technology is developed in close cooperation with machine tool control. In 1952, the first CNC machine was introduced and became an epoch-making event in the history of the world machinery industry, which promoted the development of automation.
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    Numerical control technology is also called Computerized Numerical Control (CNC), which is a technology that uses computers to implement digital program control. This technique uses a computer to execute a logic control function of a device's motion track and a peripheral's operation sequence according to a control program stored in advance. As a computer is used instead of a numerical control device originally composed of hardware logic circuits, the realization of various control functions such as storage, processing, calculation, and logic judgment of input operation instructions can be accomplished by computer software, and micro-commands generated by processing are transmitted to The servo drive device drives the motor or hydraulic actuator to drive the device.
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    The traditional mechanical processing is manual operation of ordinary machine tools. When machining, manual mechanical tools are used to cut metal, and the eye uses a caliper to measure the accuracy of the product. The modern industry has already used computer-controlled machine tools to perform operations. The CNC machine tool can automatically process any product and component directly according to the procedures programmed by the technicians. This is what we call CNC machining. CNC machining is widely used in any field of all machining, and it is the development trend of mold processing and important and necessary technical means. The
 
    CNC machine tools automatically process the machined parts according to pre-programmed machining programs. We took the part's processing route, process parameters, tool movement trajectory, displacement, cutting parameters (spindle revolution, feed, back knife, etc.) and auxiliary functions (tool change, spindle forward, reverse, Cutting fluid is turned on, off, etc.), programmed into a machining program according to the command code and program format specified by the CNC machine tool, and recorded on the control medium (such as punched tape, magnetic tape, magnetic disk, and bubble memory). ), and then enter the numerical control machine tool in the numerical control device, so as to direct the machine tool processing parts.
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    This entire process from the analysis of the part drawing to the control medium is called NC programming. The difference between CNC machine tools and ordinary machine tool processing parts is that the control machine tool automatically processes parts in accordance with the program, and ordinary machine tools are operated by people. We only need to change the program that controls the machine tool movements to achieve the purpose of processing different parts. Therefore, numerically-controlled machine tools are particularly suitable for machining small-volume parts with complex shapes and high precision.
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    Since the CNC machine tool must process the parts according to the program, after the programmer has compiled the program, it is input into the numerical control device to direct the machine tool work. The input of the program is through the control medium.
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    CNC technology and equipment are the enabling technologies and the most basic equipment for the development of emerging high-tech industries and cutting-edge industries. The national defense industries in the world, such as the information industry, bio-industry, aerospace, and aerospace, have widely adopted numerical control technologies to increase their manufacturing capabilities and levels and increase their adaptability and competitiveness to the market. The industrialized countries have also listed numerical control technology and numerical control equipment as strategic materials of the country. They not only vigorously developed their own numerical control technologies and their industries, but also imposed blockade and restrictive policies on China's key technologies and equipment. Therefore, vigorously developing advanced manufacturing technologies centered on numerical control technology has become an important way for all developed countries in the world to accelerate economic development and improve their overall national strength and national status.
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